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  • National Oil and Acrylic Painters Society 2020 Spring Online International Exhibition

    Location: , ON

    The National Oil & Acrylic Painters’ Society (NOAPS) invites oil and acrylic painters..
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  • Land and Sky - 2 Artist/2 Perspectives

    Location: Windsor, ON

    PAINTING WORKSHOP AT SHO ART STUDIOS APRIL 3rd 4th and 5th 2020..
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  • Confluent Dreams

    Location: North Battleford, SK

    An afternoon exhibition, cranky theatre and musical performance all taking place at..
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  • Love At First Sight

    Location: Regina, SK

    Love At First Sight / Regina Art Collective members: Dave Gedjos / DeLee Grant..
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  • In Other Words

    Location: Regina, SK

    In Other Words / Regina Art Collective members: Nikki Jacquin / Derek Olson / Mark..
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  • Alee & Ayla: Approaches to Portraiture

    Location: Regina, SK

    H.J. Linnen; Patron of the Regina Art Collective will be exhibiting works from his..
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  • Call for Art - 4th Annual Black & White Art Competition

    Location: Palm Springs, CA

    Fusion Art invites submissions for the 4th Annual Black & White online art..
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  • CALL FOR ARTISTS: VENICE INTERNATIONAL ART FAIR 2020

    Location: Venice,

    CALL FOR ARTISTS: VENICE INTERNATIONAL ART FAIR 2020 Venice | April 09 – May..
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  • CALL FOR ARTISTS: THE EXTENDED BODY 2020

    Location: London,

    CALL FOR ARTISTS: THE EXTENDED BODY – MIXING CULTURES ITSLIQUID International Art Exhibition THE..
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  • Call for Proposals: 2020 The WALL Artist

    Location: Vancouver, BC

    Vancouver Heritage Foundation is now accepting proposals from independent artists and curators for..
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  • 10th Annual

    Location: Palm Springs, CA

    Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery announces an art call for the..
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  • Appreciation of the Arts

    Location: London, ON

    Three day art and music event to recognize local artists in London, Ontario...
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  • Call to Artists - 2020 Sooke Fine Arts Show

    Location: Sooke, BC

    Artists are invited to submit work for consideration to the 2020 Sooke Fine..
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  • INK by Shawn Zheng

    Location: Saskatoon, SK

    Shu Cheng (Shawn) Zheng features his distinctive style of making marks in Chinese..
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  • North Shore Art Crawl

    Location: North Shore, BC

    The North Shore Art Crawl is a free community arts event March 7+8,..
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  • New Craft Coalition: Call to Artists

    Location: Calgary, AB

    New Craft Coalition invites applications from all mid-career and professional artists to be..
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  • TRAVEL EXHIBITION

    Location: Toronto, ON

    John Mantha will be participating in a group show at Twist Gallery in..
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  • David Tycho: Urbania

    Location: Vancouver, BC

    Guest artist David Tycho will exhibit 10 paintings from his latest series. This series..
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  • ACAF (Accessible Art Fair) 2020

    Location: Brussels,

    ACAF (Accessible Art Fair) is back on October 15-18, 2020 for its 14th..
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  • Clarkson Society of Artists 2020 Show & Sale

    Location: Mississauga, ON

    The Clarkson Society of Artists invites you to attend their annual show &..
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  • Call for Artists: Urban Matrix

    Location: North Vancouver, BC

    North Van Arts is inviting artists to take part in an upcoming group..
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  • 9th Artist Spotlight Solo Art Competition

    Location: Palm Springs, CA

    Fusion Art is now accepting entries for the 9th Artist Spotlight Solo Art..
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  • Call For Artists: The Other Art Fair Toronto

    Location: Toronto, ON

    The Other Art Fair are thrilled to present the newest edition of The..
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  • Call for Art - 4th Annual Colors Art Competition

    Location: Palm Springs, CA

    Fusion Art invites submissions for the 4th Annual Colors online art competition. For this..
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  • Marlene Kawalez and Corynn Kokolakis

    Location: Toronto, ON

    Presented by: Cedar Ridge Gallery. Part of the Cedar Ridge Gallery Contemporary Exhibition series. March..
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  • Jane Selbie and Joseph Farrugia

    Location: Toronto, ON

    Presented by: Cedar Ridge Gallery. Part of the Cedar Ridge Gallery Contemporary Exhibition series. February..
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  • “Grey” International Call - Art & Literature Journal - Deadline February 28, 2020

    Location: Toronto, ON

    | Theme: Grey surrounds us, sometimes in surprising ways. In beach pebbles, a..
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  • on thin ice Polar Bear Art Exhibit

    Location: Toronto, ON

    On thin ice is a solo exhibit of polar bear portrait paintings by..
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  • Support the Worldwide Art Community | Participate in 6x6x2020

    Location: Rochester, ON

    Hello Artists in Canada, We want YOU to participate in 6x6x2020! Let your creative..
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  • Olivier Du Tre: New Works

    Location: CALGARY, AB

    January 7 to February 29, 2020 At HUB@302 302-1235 26 Ave SE, Calgary, AB..
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  • WAAH 124th Juried Exhibition at the Art Gallery of Hamilton

    Location: Hamilton, ON

    Who:  The Women’s Art Association of Hamilton (WAAH) at the Art Gallery of..
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  • The Indian Contemporary Art Competition

    Location: New York, NY, ON

    The Indian Contemporary Art Competition (ICAC) aims to discover and promote talented artists..
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  • The Loft On King Street

    Location: Toronto, ON

    The Loft On King Street is one of the most unique private event..
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Printmaking (Series 12 of 21) - Waterless lithography: waterbased images

By Nik Semenoff August 23, 2004

} Waterless lithography: waterbased images Printmaking Series - Part 12 of 21 By Nik Semenoff In traditional grease/water lithography, the use of water has been a problem to the commercial printing industry. Known as the fountain solution, it contained other chemicals to ensure the best balance of grease and water to produce best quality work. On the chemical level, both the grease and gum bonded to the surface used the same carboxyl radicals; this meant that any change to the chemistry on the surface could allow either to move into the others area. This meant the image might disappear or the image darkens to make the plate useless. What was needed was completely different chemical bonds to separate ink and rejecting background. If water could be eliminated, so much the better. Toray, a Japanese company producing printing materials, finally developed a commercial plate that used silicone for the ink rejecting surface. The cost and availability of these plates are beyond the reach of most printmakers and were only occasionally used by them. In 1990 I started research into a less prohibitive method of making waterless litho available to printers. Having used ordinary silicone caulking for other unorthodox projects, I knew that it could be diluted with hydrocarbon solvents. This became the basis of my waterless process that is now used by many printmakers across the world. Because of the tenacity of the bond between silicon and aluminium, the plates produced are not as likely to become degraded as in the case of traditional lithography. Using thin aluminium plates that have been scrubbed and treated with a weak alkali, the artist produces an image from any water soluble gum or glue bearing material. Solids are applied with brush or pen. Pencil drawings are best executed with Omnichrom 108-9 water soluble pencils. The printer prepares the silicone coating by diluting caulking compounds with odorless paint thinner. This is spread over the entire surface with a soft pad and buffed to a very thin film with facial tissue covering a foam pad. Depending on room temperature and humidity, the silicone will polymerize very fast in such a thin layer. In about 20 minutes the image can be removed with ordinary water, making the plate ready for printing. Paul Constable The best ink to use in my experience is Van Son Rubberbased Plus commercial offset ink. It is of very high quality and color saturation and has the proper characteristics to be rejected by the silicone on the plate surface. While I have developed a special roller to make printing easier, a good rubber roller of the right dimensions should work. The diameter should be under 4 inches as tinting may become a problem. Again room temperature comes into play as ink will become too loose when it gets warm and cannot be lifted from the silicone. There are additives that can be used to help in such cases. So why change to waterless lithography if traditional methods have worked for over 200 years? The common chemicals used in traditional lithography may be toxic when practitioners use the more controllable processes borrowed from commercial printing. A complete procedure has been worked out for waterless lithography that reduces the use of dangerous materials to a minimum. As an added bonus, it allows the artist more freedom in producing the image and the printer less problems in completing the edition. Having practiced traditional methods since the middle 1950's until 1990, I find I have no need for them since developing my waterless process. I find it more versatile and forgiving. ________________________________________________ Copyright © 2004 Nik Semenoff Nik Semenoff Artist-in-residence University of Saskatchewan Visit Nik Semenoff's website at duke.usask.ca/~semenoff/ for more information.