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  • Drawing Fundamentals & Community with North Van Arts

    Location: North Vancouver, BC

    Register for North Van Arts' six-week Drawing Fundamentals and Community course with Artist/Instructor..
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  • Intermediate Acrylic Painting with North Van Arts

    Location: North Vancouver, BC

    Register for North Van Arts' four-week Intermediate Acrylic Painting course with Artist/Instructor Jeff..
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  • Art Rental Show at North Van Arts

    Location: North Vancouver, BC

    Come and visit CityScape Community Art Space to view the second installment of..
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  • All is True - #NorthVanArts Film Screening

    Location: North Vancouver, BC

    The North Van Arts International Film Series is presented by North Van Arts..
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  • Didukh Building Workshop

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Learn how to make a didukh, a sheaf of grain traditionally prepared by..
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  • Vertep Building Workshop

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    In this workshop, you will create a Vertep (Christmas Manger) as your newest decor..
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  • Intermediate Oil Painting

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Paint a rainy urban scene in oils while you stay comfortably indoors! Learn..
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  • From Around Ukraine in Stitches

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    This new series, a Technique Taster of Stitches, will introduce participants to embroidery..
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  • WANTED: WEBSITE DEVELOPER

    Location: Saskatoon, SK

    Wanted: Website Developer Artists in Canada is looking for a website / UI developer..
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  • IT'S NOT ME, IT'S YOU

    Location: Toronto, ON

    AWOL COLLECTIVE 20TH ANNIVERSARY SHOW, September 14-September 29, 2019, Saturday and Sunday 1-5 pm...
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  • Call for Art - 9th Annual

    Location: Palm Springs, CA

    Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery announces an art call for the..
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  • 5th Annual Leaves & Petals Art Competition

    Location: Palm Springs, CA

    Fusion Art invites submissions for the 5th Annual Leaves & Petals online art..
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  • Exaltation : Intangible Journeys of the Human Spirit: Nikola Wojewoda

    Location: Niagara on the lake, ON

    The Niagara Pumphouse Arts Centre presents Exaltation : Intangible Journeys of the Human..
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  • HUB @ 302

    Location: CALGARY, AB

    The Alberta Society of Artists invites all juried members, associate and non-members to..
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  • Open Call for 2020 exhibitions

    Location: Vernon, BC

    We are an artist run gallery seeking submissions from emerging artists for our..
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  • Beacon Original Art Fall Show & Sale

    Location: Calgary, AB

    Saturday October 19, 2019 from 10am - 4pm. Featuring more than 30 artists..
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  • Open Call:

    Location: Vancouver, BC

    The Federation of Canadian Artists (FCA) is having an open exhibition for members..
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  • Open Call: All 10

    Location: Vancouver, BC

    Calling all Canadian Artists! This is an open submission call for a lightly..
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  • Earth

    Location: CALGARY, AB

    The Alberta Society of Artists invites all Juried, Life, Student, Associate Members and..
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  • Reza Rezaï / Mehmoon

    Location: Calgary, AB

    TRUCK Contemporary Art is pleased to present Mehmoon by Reza Rezaï. Through the..
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  • Outside, In

    Location: Lethbridge, AB

    Opening reception September 28th 7-9pm for the Allied Art Council's Gallery Stroll! OUTSIDE,..
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  • National Oil and Acrylic Painters Society 2019 Fall Online International Exhibition

    Location: Windsor, ON

    The National Oil & Acrylic Painters’ Society (NOAPS) invites oil and acrylic painters..
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  • “Motion” International Call - Art & Literature Journal - Deadline October 31, 2019

    Location: Toronto, ON

    | Theme: Moving or being moved. Shifting, stirring, changing places. The rise and..
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  • Beaver Sheppard: Solo Exhibition

    Location: Montreal, QC

    Archive Contemporary presents a comprehensive solo exhibition of Beaver Sheppard’s artistic canon, for..
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  • ANCESTRAL MINDSCAPES

    Location: Toronto, ON

    Ancestral Mindscapes is an autobiographical collaboration using video, sound and photography to explore..
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  • Clay Tile Workshop

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Participants will be working with clay to hand-build tiles using a variety of..
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  • Edible and Medicinal Gardening Lecture

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Ukrainian settlers brought with them a wide range of traditional knowledge and practices,..
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  • Acrylic Painting for Beginners

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Do you want to create a bright & beautiful acrylic landscape in one..
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  • New Craft Coalition: Call to Artists

    Location: Calgary, AB

    New Craft Coalition, invites applications from all mid-career and professional artists to be..
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  • Invisible by PAINTER8

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Please join us at PAINTER8, and other Edmonton art lovers alike, for the..
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  • 19th Annual Stouffville Studio Tour

    Location: Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, ON

    The 19th Annual Stouffville Studio Tour is an event you don’t want to..
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  • Wheat Centrepiece Workshop

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Join this class to learn how to make a didukh-style centrepiece that can..
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  • LOOK AGAIN!

    Location: Saskatoon, SK

    LOOK AGAIN! PAINTINGS BY KATHLEEN SLAVIN AND GAIL PRPICK AT UNIVERSITY..
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  • Figureworks 2019

    Location: Ottawa, ON

    Figureworks 2019 Call for Artists The call for submissions to the 10th annual juried..
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  • Quasi-Nature

    Location: Montreal, QC

    Archive Contemporary Art Gallery is pleased to present Quasi-Nature, a group exhibition curated..
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  • National Oil and Acrylic Painters Society 2019 Fall Online International Exhibition

    Location: Windsor, ON

    The National Oil & Acrylic Painters’ Society (NOAPS) invites oil and acrylic painters..
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  • Unsettling Nature

    Location: Toronto, ON

    An Exhibition at: The Garage Gallery Benmiller with Artists Jill Price, Leslie Putnam, Morag Webster..
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  • Through the Eyes of a Child

    Location: CALGARY, AB

    Artists Statement: Ed Flanagan My wife had a career as an elementary school..
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  • Exposition solo Lac-Mégantic

    Location: Lac-Mégantic, QC

    L'eau, une mine d'Art du 8 juillet au 8 septembre 2019..
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  • Sustainable Fashion Designer Looking for Studio Space in Mississauga

    Location: Mississauga, ON

    Hi, I'm Amanda, I am an emerging fashion designer starting my business designing..
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Printmaking (Series 12 of 21) - Waterless lithography: waterbased images

By Nik Semenoff August 23, 2004

} Waterless lithography: waterbased images Printmaking Series - Part 12 of 21 By Nik Semenoff In traditional grease/water lithography, the use of water has been a problem to the commercial printing industry. Known as the fountain solution, it contained other chemicals to ensure the best balance of grease and water to produce best quality work. On the chemical level, both the grease and gum bonded to the surface used the same carboxyl radicals; this meant that any change to the chemistry on the surface could allow either to move into the others area. This meant the image might disappear or the image darkens to make the plate useless. What was needed was completely different chemical bonds to separate ink and rejecting background. If water could be eliminated, so much the better. Toray, a Japanese company producing printing materials, finally developed a commercial plate that used silicone for the ink rejecting surface. The cost and availability of these plates are beyond the reach of most printmakers and were only occasionally used by them. In 1990 I started research into a less prohibitive method of making waterless litho available to printers. Having used ordinary silicone caulking for other unorthodox projects, I knew that it could be diluted with hydrocarbon solvents. This became the basis of my waterless process that is now used by many printmakers across the world. Because of the tenacity of the bond between silicon and aluminium, the plates produced are not as likely to become degraded as in the case of traditional lithography. Using thin aluminium plates that have been scrubbed and treated with a weak alkali, the artist produces an image from any water soluble gum or glue bearing material. Solids are applied with brush or pen. Pencil drawings are best executed with Omnichrom 108-9 water soluble pencils. The printer prepares the silicone coating by diluting caulking compounds with odorless paint thinner. This is spread over the entire surface with a soft pad and buffed to a very thin film with facial tissue covering a foam pad. Depending on room temperature and humidity, the silicone will polymerize very fast in such a thin layer. In about 20 minutes the image can be removed with ordinary water, making the plate ready for printing. Paul Constable The best ink to use in my experience is Van Son Rubberbased Plus commercial offset ink. It is of very high quality and color saturation and has the proper characteristics to be rejected by the silicone on the plate surface. While I have developed a special roller to make printing easier, a good rubber roller of the right dimensions should work. The diameter should be under 4 inches as tinting may become a problem. Again room temperature comes into play as ink will become too loose when it gets warm and cannot be lifted from the silicone. There are additives that can be used to help in such cases. So why change to waterless lithography if traditional methods have worked for over 200 years? The common chemicals used in traditional lithography may be toxic when practitioners use the more controllable processes borrowed from commercial printing. A complete procedure has been worked out for waterless lithography that reduces the use of dangerous materials to a minimum. As an added bonus, it allows the artist more freedom in producing the image and the printer less problems in completing the edition. Having practiced traditional methods since the middle 1950's until 1990, I find I have no need for them since developing my waterless process. I find it more versatile and forgiving. ________________________________________________ Copyright © 2004 Nik Semenoff Nik Semenoff Artist-in-residence University of Saskatchewan Visit Nik Semenoff's website at duke.usask.ca/~semenoff/ for more information.