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  • HUB @ 302

    Location: CALGARY, AB

    The Alberta Society of Artists invites all juried members, associate and non-members to..
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  • Open Call for 2020 exhibitions

    Location: Vernon, BC

    We are an artist run gallery seeking submissions from emerging artists for our..
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  • Beacon Original Art Fall Show & Sale

    Location: Calgary, AB

    Saturday October 19, 2019 from 10am - 4pm. Featuring more than 30 artists..
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  • Open Call:

    Location: Vancouver, BC

    The Federation of Canadian Artists (FCA) is having an open exhibition for members..
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  • Open Call: All 10

    Location: Vancouver, BC

    Calling all Canadian Artists! This is an open submission call for a lightly..
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  • Earth

    Location: CALGARY, AB

    The Alberta Society of Artists invites all Juried, Life, Student, Associate Members and..
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  • Reza Rezaï / Mehmoon

    Location: Calgary, AB

    TRUCK Contemporary Art is pleased to present Mehmoon by Reza Rezaï. Through the..
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  • Outside, In

    Location: Lethbridge, AB

    Opening reception September 28th 7-9pm for the Allied Art Council's Gallery Stroll! OUTSIDE,..
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  • National Oil and Acrylic Painters Society 2019 Fall Online International Exhibition

    Location: Windsor, ON

    The National Oil & Acrylic Painters’ Society (NOAPS) invites oil and acrylic painters..
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  • “Motion” International Call - Art & Literature Journal - Deadline October 31, 2019

    Location: Toronto, ON

    | Theme: Moving or being moved. Shifting, stirring, changing places. The rise and..
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  • Beaver Sheppard: Solo Exhibition

    Location: Montreal, QC

    Archive Contemporary presents a comprehensive solo exhibition of Beaver Sheppard’s artistic canon, for..
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  • ANCESTRAL MINDSCAPES

    Location: Toronto, ON

    Ancestral Mindscapes is an autobiographical collaboration using video, sound and photography to explore..
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  • Clay Tile Workshop

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Participants will be working with clay to hand-build tiles using a variety of..
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  • Edible and Medicinal Gardening Lecture

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Ukrainian settlers brought with them a wide range of traditional knowledge and practices,..
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  • Acrylic Painting for Beginners

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Do you want to create a bright & beautiful acrylic landscape in one..
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  • Willow Heart Weaving Workshop

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Willow Heart Weaving Workshop In this workshop, participants will learn how to trim and..
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  • New Craft Coalition: Call to Artists

    Location: Calgary, AB

    New Craft Coalition, invites applications from all mid-career and professional artists to be..
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  • Invisible by PAINTER8

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Please join us at PAINTER8, and other Edmonton art lovers alike, for the..
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  • 19th Annual Stouffville Studio Tour

    Location: Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, ON

    The 19th Annual Stouffville Studio Tour is an event you don’t want to..
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  • Wheat Centrepiece Workshop

    Location: Edmonton, AB

    Join this class to learn how to make a didukh-style centrepiece that can..
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  • Radio Silence

    Location: Quebec city, QC

    Québec, August 19, 2019 – Folie/Culture invites all those who express themselves through..
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  • LOOK AGAIN!

    Location: Saskatoon, SK

    LOOK AGAIN! PAINTINGS BY KATHLEEN SLAVIN AND GAIL PRPICK AT UNIVERSITY..
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  • Watercolour Workshop with Frank Townsley

    Location: Vancouver, BC

    Sunday 22nd September 10.00 AM - 5.00 PM ..
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  • Figureworks 2019

    Location: Ottawa, ON

    Figureworks 2019 Call for Artists The call for submissions to the 10th annual juried..
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  • Quasi-Nature

    Location: Montreal, QC

    Archive Contemporary Art Gallery is pleased to present Quasi-Nature, a group exhibition curated..
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  • National Oil and Acrylic Painters Society 2019 Fall Online International Exhibition

    Location: Windsor, ON

    The National Oil & Acrylic Painters’ Society (NOAPS) invites oil and acrylic painters..
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  • Unsettling Nature

    Location: Toronto, ON

    An Exhibition at: The Garage Gallery Benmiller with Artists Jill Price, Leslie Putnam, Morag Webster..
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  • Through the Eyes of a Child

    Location: CALGARY, AB

    Artists Statement: Ed Flanagan My wife had a career as an elementary school..
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  • Exposition solo Lac-Mégantic

    Location: Lac-Mégantic, QC

    L'eau, une mine d'Art du 8 juillet au 8 septembre 2019..
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  • Sustainable Fashion Designer Looking for Studio Space in Mississauga

    Location: Mississauga, ON

    Hi, I'm Amanda, I am an emerging fashion designer starting my business designing..
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  • 32 Points- 32 Voices: A Compass of Peace

    Location: Toronto, ON

    32 Points - 32 Voices: A Compass of Peace International Exhibition September 6-27, 2019 Cedar Ridge..
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Printmaking Series (4 of 21) - Lithographic methods

By Nik Semenoff June 28, 2004

} Lithographic methods Printmaking Series - Part 4 of 21 By Nik Semenoff Since its' invention in 1798 by Alois Senefelder, lithography has replaced most of the commercial printing methods practiced all over the world. Relying on unseen chemical reactions, the printing surface is made to selectively reject either water or greasy ink. All this takes place on the same level surface and is referred to a planographic printing. While the commercial printing industry has pushed the knowledge and limits of the process, artists basically use the same methods developed in the 19th Century in France and Germany. In North America, aluminium plates textured to produce a fine grain have mainly replaced the large limestone slabs that started lithography. Essential the same materials are used on metal and stone to produce and print the image. The artist starts by drawing on the clean surface with special greasy materials. These can be crayon-like or a colored emulsion of grease and water. A chemical reaction takes place between the grease particles and the surface as the area will now reject water. To make the surface permanently in the same configuration, the entire surface is treated with an acidified gum Arabic solution so that it will reject greasy ink as long as the surface is damp. This all takes place within the few molecules on the surface of the plate or stone. With care, the delicate balance of ink and water will allow many copies to be printed from the substrate. L. Prout The printer first wets the substrate with a dampened cellulose sponge - this leaves a thin film of water all over the surface except for the greasy inked image. Then a roller charged with ink is quickly passed over the image area until it takes its full allotment of ink. More water may be applied as required by the plate and image. A piece of archival paper is now placed on the plate or stone, next a sheet of packing paper over it - then a tympan made of plastic or other suitable material. The press bed is moved to a position under a leather cover scraper bar, which is lowered unto the greased top surface of the tympan. Under heavy pressure, the "sandwich" is wrenched through the press as the ink is transferred to the paper. The pressure is released and the press bed returned to the start position. Everything is lifted from the plate as the print is inspected for quality and put aside to dry. The process is repeated for each print in the edition. Nik Semenoff Over the last two centuries, many techniques have been developed by the master practitioners of the craft. These have been handed down to fine art printers who collaborate with working artists unacquainted with this extremely technical process. Until the 70's, lithography as a fine art print media was not practiced to any extent in North America, but it has gained in stature as more dedicated printers learned the flexibility of lithography and opened print shops. Nik Semenoff Today the use of photographic methods are a common way of getting images unto the plate and the computer has been drawn in as an easier way to control the picture. While fine art printers use simple transfer presses with the plate and paper coming into direct contact, some have acquired cast off but good offset proofing presses to print editions. The use of an offset press does not condemn the print as not being original, as long as the artist has worked on the plates and watched over the quality of the piece. Only when a completed painting is handed over to an production house for four color separations and printing, is the edition nothing more than a reproduction. Nik Semenoff Because of the complexity of the lithographic process, it is not practiced as much as intaglio or screen printing. It takes years of study and experience to produce the best possible lithographic prints, which contain everything from the most delicate tints to the mass tone solid colors required by some artists. ________________________________________________ Copyright © 2004 Nik Semenoff Nik Semenoff Artist-in-residence University of Saskatchewan Visit Nik Semenoff's website at duke.usask.ca/~semenoff/ for more information.